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Research Environmental Economics

The Environmental Economics Department aims to conduct innovative, high-quality research in the domain of environmental economics, and addresses critical needs from society by producing policy relevant output that contributes to sustainable development.

The department’s mission is to acquire and transfer academic knowledge and expertise on the relationship between the environment and the economy to address societal concerns and to inform environmental policy.
The main strength of the department lies in the application of high quality academic knowledge and economic expertise in interdisciplinary, policy relevant research projects. The research in the department is broadly organized according to three themes: economics of natural capital and ecosystem services, climate change economics, and economics of sustainable energy

The Environmental Economics Department has strong quantitative econometric and computational skills. Applied modelling methods include Integrated Assessment Models of climate change and the economy, Computable General Equilibrium Models, Partial Equilibrium Models which have a sectoral focus, and Agent-Based Models. Moreover, methods and insights from behavioural economics are applied across the department’s research themes, and include economic lab experiments with innovative applications like Virtual Reality technology. The department also has a long-standing tradition with applying environmental valuation methods, for example using choice experiments in surveys, and in applications of societal cost-benefit analysis to inform environmental policy making.

The applied character of the research conducted by the Environmental Economics Department implies that it is well positioned to serve societal end users, as demonstrated by projects conducted for the OECD, Dutch ministries, the EU, and environmental NGOs such as WWF. PhD candidates have been financed by external organisations, such as the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and Deltares. Moreover, research projects on climate change risks regularly include end users from the financial sector, such as the Dutch Union for Insurers, Zurich Re, Achmea, and the US National Association of Insurance Commissioners. 

The Environmental Economics Department consists of around 30 scientific staff members and PhD candidates and is led by Prof. Wouter Botzen. 

More Information

  • Research themes

    Economics of natural capital and ecosystem services

    The overall goal of our research on the economics of ecosystem services and natural capital is to guide decisions and inform policies on ecosystems and prosperity. By providing insight into people’s preferences and their values for ecosystem services and natural capital, we aim to help design solutions such as decision-support tools for environmental management and business cases for nature-based solutions.

    Our research is linked to different challenges, including food, land, marine and biodiversity systems. We work on food system impacts on ecosystems, from rural producing areas to global supply chains and urban consumers. Our work in marine systems spans valuation of coastal and ocean habitats, such as coral reefs, and sustainable financing. We have long-standing experience in the valuation and assessment of values of landscapes and ecosystems and analysing the trade-offs in sustainable development.

    We take an interdisciplinary approach that builds on environmental, behavioural and ecological economics, striving for the development of actionable solutions. We have strong expertise in different methods for non-monetary and monetary valuation, including discrete choice experiments, contingent valuation, and meta-analysis. We integrate these values with hydrological models, ecological assessments, land-use models, societal cost-benefit analyses and multi-criteria assessments to inform sustainable policy making. We also have expertise in lab and field experiments that offer insights for the design of policy instruments to encourage sustainable behaviour.

    We collaborate intensively with a range of national and international conservation organisations, such as the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and WWF, as well as national and international government agencies, such as UNEP. Our researchers engage with various communities such as The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB), the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the Ecosystem Services Partnership (ESP).

    Key staff members: Prof. Pieter van Beukering, Dr Mark Koetse, Dr Marije Schaafsma, Dr Luke Brander and Prof. Roy Brouwer.

    Climate change economics

    The aim of our research on climate change economics is to improve understanding of interactions between climate change and the economy to guide the design of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. 

    Examples are studies on the economic consequences of sea level rise, extreme heat, and natural disasters, such as flooding, which are used in cost-benefit analyses of adaptation strategies, including nature based solutions. Researchers also work with Integrated Assessment Models of climate change and the economy, such as FUND and CLIMRISK. These models estimate the Social Cost of Carbon for setting carbon taxes and evaluate the economic desirability of greenhouse gas mitigation policies at the international, national, and local scale, such as cities.

    Applications range from macroeconomic assessments using Computable General Equilibrium Models to sectoral studies, such as for the manufacturing, agriculture, and insurance sectors, using econometric approaches and Partial Equilibrium Models. Microeconomic assessments focus on assessing climate change impacts and adaptation responses at the household and firm levels.  
    The department also has a strong track record applying methods and insights from behavioural economics. Examples are surveys and economic experiments to study individual perceptions of natural disaster risks and to obtain insights into decision-making processes about protective investments, such as flood-proofing buildings and purchasing natural disaster insurance. This research informs policy instruments that help people better prepare for disasters, such as incentives from insurance, communication strategies, and nudges. 

    Research projects are done for various societal organizations, which at the international level include the EU, OECD and the UN, as well as national governments and city policy makers at the national and local levels. The department has long standing collaborations with the financial sector, such as (re-)insurance companies and regulators. 

    Key staff members: Prof. Wouter Botzen. Dr Fujin Zhou, Dr Peter Robinson, Prof. Richard Tol and Prof. Marjan Hofkes.

    Economics of sustainable energy

    The department’s research on renewable and sustainable energy covers the regulation of energy markets and technologies, and the design of policy instruments for the energy transition, such as carbon taxes.  Moreover, an important focus is the adoption of renewable and efficient energy technologies and behaviours by individual agents, such as households and farmers. The main aim of the research is to understand which policies can accelerate the transition to clean and sustainable energy systems - in the Netherlands, in Europe and in the Global South. 

    The Environmental Economics department carries out projects with a focus on sustainable energy for various societal organizations, such as the Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO) at the national level or the EU at the international level. Examples for ongoing research are the Evaluation of RVO’s EnDev program, where the department, in collaboration with PricewaterhouseCoopers and SEO Amsterdam Economics, assesses the performance of selected EnDev programme activities. In the Horizon 2020 project NEWCOMERS – New Clean Energy Communities in a Changing European Energy System, the department analyses the potential of clean energy communities to stimulate energy conservation behaviour among community members. 

    Applications range from macroeconomic assessments using Computable General Equilibrium Models to microeconomic studies using econometric approaches and agent based models of energy conservation behaviour. Moreover, behavioural economic studies focus on econometric analyses of survey data or experimental data collected using choice experiments, as well as laboratory and field experiments. The latter try to reveal individual behavioural biases that may impede the transition to clean energy systems – and test strategies to overcome them, for instance using information provision and social norm nudges. 

    Key staff members: Dr Julia Blasch, Prof. Pieter van Beukering, Prof. Jeroen van den Bergh, Prof. Wouter Botzen, Prof. Richard Tol, Dr Onno Kuik, Dr Marije Schaafsma and Drs Frans Oosterhuis.

  • Research Projects

    The projects are organised according to the three themes.

    (1) Economics of natural capital and ecosystem services

    (2) Climate change economics

    (3) Economics of sustainable energy

  • List of key publications


    • Ahrends, A., Bulling, M.T., Platts, P.J., Swetnam, R., …Schaafsma, M., ... Burgess, N.D. (2021). Detecting and predicting forest degradation: A comparison of ground surveys and remote sensing in Tanzanian forests. Plants, People, Planet, 3(3), 268–281.
    • Altamirano Del Carmen, M.A., Estrada, F. & Gay-Garciá, C. (2021). A new method for assessing the performance of general circulation models based on their ability to simulate the response to observed forcing. Journal of Climate, 34(13), 5385–5402.
    • Ashraf Vaghefi, S., Muccione, V., van Ginkel, K.C.H. & Haasnoot, M. (2021). Using Decision Making under Deep Uncertainty (DMDU) approaches to support climate change adaptation of Swiss Ski Resorts. Environmental Science and Policy, 126, 65–78.
    • Ayompe, L.M., Schaafsma, M. & Egoh, B.N. (2021). Towards sustainable palm oil production: The positive and negative impacts on ecosystem services and human wellbeing. Journal of cleaner production, 278, 123914.
    • Baďura, T., Krkoška Lorencová, E., Ferrini, S. & Vačkářová, D. (2021). Public support for urban climate adaptation policy through nature-based solutions in Prague. Landscape and Urban Planning, 215, 104215.
    • Blasch, J., Boogen, N., Daminato, C. & Filippini, M. (2021). Empower the Consumer! Energy-related Financial Literacy and its Implications for Economic Decision Making. Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy, 10(2).
    • Blasch, J., van der Grijp, N.M., Petrovics, D., Palm, J., Bocken, N., Darby, S., Barnes, J., Hansen, P., Kamin, T., Golob, U., Andor, M., Sommer, S., Nicita, A., Musolino, M. & Mlinarič, M. (2021). New clean energy communities in polycentric settings: Four avenues for future research. Energy Research & Social Science, 82, 102276.
    • Blasch, J., Vuolo, F., Essl, L. & van der Kroon, B. (2021). Drivers and barriers influencing the willingness to adopt technologies for variable rate application of fertiliser in lower Austria. Agronomy, 11(10), 1965.
    • Bloemendaal, N., de Moel, H., Mol, J.M., Bosma, P.R.M., Polen, A.N. & Collins, J.M. (2021). Adequately reflecting the severity of tropical cyclones using the new Tropical Cyclone Severity Scale. Environmental Research Letters, 16, 014048.
    • Botzen, W.J.W., Duijndam, S. & van Beukering, P. (2021). Lessons for climate policy from behavioral biases towards COVID-19 and climate change risks. World Development, 137, 105214.
    • Botzen, W.J.W., Nees, T. & Estrada, F. (2021). Temperature effects on electricity and gas consumption: Empirical evidence from mexico and projections under future climate conditions. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(1), 305.
    • Botzen, W.J.W., Estrada, F. & Tol, R.S.J. (2021). Methodological issues in natural disaster loss normalisation studies. Environmental Hazards, 20(2), 39–56.
    • Brouwer, R. & Pinto, R. (2021). How much are Canadians willing to pay for clean surface and ground water? A meta-analysis of the Canadian non-market valuation literature. Canadian Water Resources Journal, 46(4), 207–228.
    • Brown, S., Jenkins, K., Goodwin, P., Lincke, D., Vafeidis, A.T., Tol, R.S.J., Jenkins, R., Warren, R., Nicholls, R.J., Jevrejeva, S., Arcilla, A.S. & Haigh, I.D. (2021). Global costs of protecting against sea-level rise at 1.5 to 4.0 °C. Climatic Change, 167(1-2), 4.
    • Christensen, A., Tsiaras, K., Murawski, J., Hatzonikolakis, Y., She, J., St. John, M., Lips, U. & Brouwer, R. (2021). A Cross Disciplinary Framework for Cost-Benefit Optimization of Marine Litter Cleanup at Regional Scale. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8, 744208.
    • Dai, D., Brouwer, R. & Kun, L. (2021). Measuring the economic value of urban river restoration. Ecological Economics, 190, 107186.
    • Daneshi, A., Brouwer, R., Najafinejad, A., Panahi, M., Zarandian, A. & Maghsood, F.F. (2021). Modelling the impacts of climate and land use change on water security in a semi-arid forested watershed using InVEST. Journal of Hydrology, 593, 125621.
    • de Boer, J. & Aiking, H. (2021). Climate change and species decline: Distinct sources of European consumer concern supporting more sustainable diets. Ecological Economics, 188, 107141.
    • de Boer, J. & Aiking, H. (2021). Exploring food consumers’ motivations to fight both climate change and biodiversity loss: Combining insights from behavior theory and Eurobarometer data. Food Quality and Preference, 94, 104304.
    • de Boer, J. & Aiking, H. (2021). Favoring plant instead of animal protein sources: Legitimation by authority, morality, rationality and story logic. Food Quality and Preference, 88, 104098.
    • de Boer, J. & Aiking, H. (2021). Limiting vs. diversifying patterns of recommendations for key protein sources emerging: a study on national food guides worldwide from a health and sustainability perspective. British Food Journal, 123(7), 2414–2429.
    • de Boer, J. & Aiking, H. (2021). Key ways to legitimize diet shifts that favor plant instead of animal protein sources. Ernährungs Umschau 68 (8), 167-173. 10.4455/eu.2021.033
    • Dijkstra, H., van Beukering, P. & Brouwer, R. (2021). In the business of dirty oceans: Overview of startups and entrepreneurs managing marine plastic. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 162, 111880.
    • Duijndam, S. & van Beukering, P. (2021). Understanding public concern about climate change in Europe, 2008-2017: The influence of economic factors and right-wing populism. Climate Policy, 21(3), 353–367.
    • Eamen, L., Brouwer, R. & Razavi, S. (2021). Integrated modelling to assess the impacts of water stress in a transboundary river basin: Bridging local-scale water resource operations to a river basin economy. Science of the Total Environment, 800, 149543.
    • Estrada F., Kim D. & Perron P. (2021). Anthropogenic influence in observed regional warming trends and the implied social time of emergence. Communications Earth and Environment, 2, 31.
    • Estrada Porrua, F. & Botzen, W. (2021). Economic impacts and risks of climate change under failure and success of the Paris Agreement. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1504(1), 95–115.
    • Estrada, F. & Perron, P. (2021). Disentangling the trend in the warming of urban areas into global and local factors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1504(1), 230–246.
    • Estrada, F., Kim, D. & Perron, P. (2021). Spatial variations in the warming trend and the transition to more severe weather in midlatitudes. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 145.
    • Exadaktylos, F. & van den Bergh, J. (2021). Energy-related behaviour and rebound when rationality, self-interest and willpower are limited. Nature Energy, 6(12), 1104–1113.
    • Foramitti, J., Savin, I. & van den Bergh, J. (2021). Regulation at the source? Comparing upstream and downstream climate policies. Technological Forecasting & Social Change 172, 121060.
    • Foramitti, J., Savin, I. & van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. (2021). Emission tax vs. permit trading under bounded rationality and dynamic markets. Energy Policy, 148(Part B), 112009.
    • Frantzi, S., Brouwer, R., Watkins, E., van Beukering, P., Cunha, M. C., Dijkstra, H., Duijndam, S., Jaziri, H., Okoli, I. C., Pantzar, M., Rada Cotera, I., Rehdanz, K., Seidel, K. & Triantaphyllidis, G. (2021). Adoption and diffusion of marine litter clean-up technologies across European seas: Legal, institutional and financial drivers and barriers. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 170, 112611.
    • García Alvarez, G. & Tol, R.S.J. (2021). The impact of the Bono Social de Electricidad on energy poverty in Spain. Energy Economics, 103, 105554.
    • Garcia-Hernandez, J.A. & Brouwer, R. (2021). A multiregional input–output optimization model to assess impacts of water supply disruptions under climate change on the Great Lakes economy. Economic Systems Research, 33(4), 509–535.
    • Hagedoorn, L.C., Appeaning Addo, K., Koetse, M.J., Kinney, K. & van Beukering, P.J.H. (2021). Angry waves that eat the coast: An economic analysis of nature-based and engineering solutions to coastal erosion. Ocean and Coastal Management, 214, 1 105945.
    • Hagedoorn, L.C., Bubeck, P., Hudson, P., Brander, L.M., Pham, M. & Lasage, R. (2021). Preferences of vulnerable social groups for ecosystem-based adaptation to flood risk in Central Vietnam. World Development, 148, 105650.
    • Hagedoorn, L.C., Koetse, M.J. & van Beukering, P.J.H. (2021). Estimating Benefits of Nature-based Solutions: Diverging Values From Choice Experiments With Time or Money Payments. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 9(July), 686077.
    • Hagedoorn, L.C., Koetse, M.J., van Beukering, P.J.H. & Brander, L.M. (2021). Reducing the finance gap for nature-based solutions with time contributions. Ecosystem Services, 52, 101371.
    • Hänsel, M.C. & van den Bergh, J. (2021). Taxing interacting externalities of ocean acidification, global warming and eutrophication: A general equilibrium analysis. Natural Resource Modeling, 34, e12317.
    • Haro, A., Mendoza-Ponce, A., Calderón-Bustamante, Ó., Velasco, J.A. & Estrada, F. (2021). Evaluating Risk and Possible Adaptations to Climate Change Under a Socio-Ecological System Approach. Frontiers in Climate, 3, 674693.
    • Hudson, P., Pham, M., Hagedoorn, L., Thieken, A.H., Lasage, R. & Bubeck, P. (2021). Self-stated recovery from flooding: Empirical results from a survey in Central Vietnam. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 14(1), e12680.
    • Huisman, S., Jesse, W., Ellers, J. & van Beukering, P. (2021). Mapping the economic loss of ecosystem services caused by the invasive plant species Antigonon leptopus on the Dutch Caribbean Island of St. Eustatius. One Ecosystem, 6, e72881.
    • Ignjacevic, P., Estrada, F. & Botzen, W.J.W. (2021). Time of emergence of economic impacts of climate change. Environmental Research Letters, 16(7), 074039.
    • King, L.& van den Bergh, J. (2021). Potential carbon leakage under the Paris Agreement. Climatic Change, 165, 52.
    • Klein, F. & van den Bergh, J. (2021). The employment double dividend of environmental tax reforms: Exploring the role of agent behaviour and social interaction. Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, 10(2), 189–213,
    • Klein, F., Drews, S., Savin, I. & van den Bergh, J. (2021). How work patterns affect leisure activities and energy consumption: A time-use analysis for Finland and France. Energy Research & Social Science, 76, 102054.
    • Konc, T., Savin, I. & van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. (2021). The social multiplier of environmental policy: Application to carbon taxation. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 105, 102396.
    • Lindamood, D., Armitage, D., Sharmin, D., Brouwer, R., Elliott, S., Liu, J. & Khan, M. (2021). Assessing the capacity for adaptation and collaboration in the context of freshwater pollution management in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Environmental Science and Policy, 120,99–107.
    • Macrae, M., Jarvie, H., Brouwer, R., Gunn, G., Reid, K., Joosse, P., King, K., Kleinman, P., Smith, D., Williams, M., Zwonitzer, M. (2021). One size does not fit all: Towards regional conservation practice guidance to reduce Phosphorus loss risk in the Lake Erie watershed. Journal of Environmental Quality, 50, 529–546.
    • Maestre-Andrés, S., Drews, S., Savin, I. & van den Bergh, J. (2021). Carbon tax acceptability with information provision and mixed revenue uses. Nature Communications, 12,  7017.
    • Mendoza-Ponce, A., Corona-Núñez, R.O., Nava, L.F., Estrada, F., Calderón-Bustamante, O., Martínez-Meyer, E., Carabias, J., Larralde-Corona, A.H., Barrios, M. & Pardo-Villegas, P. D. (2021). Impacts of land management and climate change in a developing and socioenvironmental challenging transboundary region. Journal of Environmental Management, 300, 113748.
    • Moerkerken, A., Duijndam, S., Blasch, J., van Beukering, P. & Smit, A. (2021). Determinants of energy efficiency in the Dutch dairy sector: dilemmas for sustainability. Journal of Cleaner Production, 293, 126095.
    • Morren, M., Mol, J.M., Blasch, J.E. & Malek, Ž. (2021). Changing diets - Testing the impact of knowledge and information nudges on sustainable dietary choices. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 75, 101610.
    • Palacios, E., van Beukering, P.J.H., van Zanten, B., Lacle, F., Schep, S. & Soellner, I. (2021). Linking ecosystem services and the Sustainable Development Goals in Small Island Developing States: the case of Aruba. One Ecosystem, 6, e71033.
    • Pan, Z. & Brouwer, R. (2021). A theoretical modeling framework to support investment decisions in green and grey infrastructure under risk and uncertainty. Journal of Forest Economics, 36(4), 407–440.
    • Robinson, P.J., Botzen, W., Duijndam, S. & Molenaar, A. (2021). Risk communication nudges and flood insurance demand. Climate Risk Management, 34, 100366.
    • Robinson, P.J., Botzen, W.J.W. & Zhou, F. (2021). An experimental study of charity hazard: The effect of risky and ambiguous government compensation on flood insurance demand. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 63(3), 275–318.
    • Robinson, P.J., Botzen, W.J.W., Kunreuther, H. & Chaudhry, S.J. (2021). Default options and insurance demand. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 183, 39–56.
    • Savin, I. & van den Bergh, J. (2021). Main topics in EIST during its first decade: A computational-linguistic analysis. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 41, 10–17.
    • Savin, I., Drews, S. & van den Bergh, J. (2021). Free associations of citizens and scientists with economic and green growth: A computational-linguistics analysis. Ecological Economics, 180, 106878.
    • Savin, I., S. Drews, S., Savin, I. & van den Bergh, J. (2021). GEM: A short “Growth-vs-Environment" Module for survey research. Ecological Economics, 187, 107092
    • Schaafsma, M. & Gross-Camp, N. (2021). Towards capturing human well-being-nature relationships in poverty assessments in rural Malawi and Rwanda. Case Studies in the Environment, 5(1), 1425104.
    • Schaafsma, M., Eigenbrod, F., Gasparatos, A., Gross-Camp, N., Hutton, C., Nunan, F., Schreckenberg, K. & Turner, K. (2021). Trade-off decisions in ecosystem management for poverty alleviation. Ecological Economics, 187, 107103.
    • Schrieks, T., Botzen, W.J.W., Wens, M., Haer, T. & Aerts, J.C.J.H. (2021). Integrating Behavioral Theories in Agent-Based Models for Agricultural Drought Risk Assessments. Frontiers in Water, 3(September), 686329.
    • Stern, D.I. & Tol, R.S.J. (2021). Depth and breadth relevance in citation metrics. Economic Inquiry, 59(3), 961–977.
    • Tol, R.S.J. (2021). Europe’s Climate Target for 2050: An Assessment. Intereconomics, 56(6), 330–335.
    • Tol, R.S.J. (2021). The distributional impact of climate change. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1504(1), 63–75.
    • Tremlett, C., Peh, KS-H., Zamora-Gutierrez, V. & Schaafsma, M. (2021). Value and benefit distribution of pollination services provided by bats in the production of cactus fruits in central Mexico. Ecosystem Services, 47, 101197.
    • van den Bergh, J. & Savin, I. (2021). Impact of carbon pricing on low‑carbon innovation and deep decarbonisation: Controversies and path forward. Environmental and Resource Economics, 80, 705–715. 
    • van den Bergh, J., Castro, J., Drews, S., Exadaktylos, F., Foramitti, J., Klein, F., Konc, T. & Savin, I. (2021). Designing an effective climate-policy mix: Accounting for instrument synergy. Climate Policy, 21(6), 745–764.
    • van den Bergh, J., Kivimaa, P., Raven, R., Rohracher, H. & Truffer, B. (2021). Celebrating a decade of EIST: What’s next for transition studies? Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 41, 18–23. 
    • van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. (2021). Reflections on editing EIST for ten years. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 41, 2–9.
    • van Ginkel, K.C.H., Dottori, F., Alfieri, L., Feyen, L. & Koks, E.E. (2021). Flood risk assessment of the European road network. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 21(3), 1011–1027.
    • van Soest, H.L., Aleluia Reis, L., Baptista, L.B., Bertram, C., Després, J., Drouet, L., den Elzen, M., Fragkos, P., Fricko, O., Fujimori, S., Grant, N., Harmsen, M., Iyer, G., Keramidas, K., Köberle, A. C., Kriegler, E., Malik, A., Mittal, S., Oshiro, K., ... van Vuuren, D.P. (2021). Global roll-out of comprehensive policy measures may aid in bridging emissions gap. Nature Communications, 12, 6419.
    • Velasco, J.A., Estrada, F., Calderón-Bustamante, O., Swingedouw, D., Ureta, C., Gay, C. & Defrance, D. (2021). Synergistic impacts of global warming and thermohaline circulation collapse on amphibians. Communications biology, 4(1), 141.
    • Wang, J., Xu, X., Wang, S., He, S., Li, X. & He, P. (2021). Heterogeneous effects of COVID-19 lockdown measures on air quality in Northern China. Applied Energy, 282(Part A), 116179.
    • Zeng, Q., Brouwer, R. Wang, Y. & Chen, L. (2021). Measuring the incremental impact of Payments for Watershed Services on water quality in a transboundary river basin in China. Ecosystem Services, 51, 101355.
    • Zhou, F. & Botzen, W. (2021). Firm Level Evidence of Disaster Impacts on Growth in Vietnam. Environmental and Resource Economics, 79(2), 277–322.


    • Blasch, J. & Daminato, C. (2020). Behavioral anomalies and energy-related individual choices: The role of status-quo bias. Energy Journal, 41(6), 181–214.
    • Blasch, J., van der Kroon, B., van Beukering, P., Munster, R., Fabiani, S., Nino, P. & Vanino, S. (2020). Farmer preferences for adopting precision farming technologies: a case study from Italy. European Review of Agricultural Economics
    • Bockarjova, M., Botzen, W.J.W. & Koetse, M.J. (2020). Economic valuation of green and blue nature in cities: A meta-analysis. Ecological Economics, 169, 106480.
    • Brander, L.M., van Beukering, P., et al. (2020). The global costs and benefits of expanding Marine Protected Areas. Marine Policy, 116, 103953.
    • De Boer, J., Schösler, H. & Aiking, H. (2020). Fish as an alternative protein – A consumer-oriented perspective on its role in a transition towards more healthy and sustainable diets. Appetite, 152, 104721.
    • Dijkstra, H., van Beukering, P. & Brouwer, R. (2020). Business models and sustainable plastic management: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Cleaner Production, 258, 120967. 
    • Hagedoorn, L.C., Koetse, M.J., van Beukering, P.J.H. & Brander, L.M. (2020). Time equals money? Valuing ecosystem-based adaptation in a developing country context. Environment and Development Economics, 25(5), 482–508.
    • Klein, F. & van den Bergh, J. (2020). The employment double dividend of environmental tax reforms: exploring the role of agent behaviour and social interaction. Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy
    • Mol, J.M., Botzen, W.J.W. & Blasch, J.E. (2020). Behavioral motivations for self-insurance under different disaster risk insurance schemes. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 180, 967–991.
    • Riley, D., Schaafsma, M., Marin-Moreno, H. & Minshull, T.A. (2020). A social, environmental and economic evaluation protocol for potential gas hydrate exploitation projects. Applied Energy, 263, 114651.
    • Schaafsma, M. & Brouwer, R. (2020). Substitution Effects in Spatial Discrete Choice Experiments. Environmental and Resource Economics, 75, 323–349.
    • van den Bergh, J. & Botzen, W. (2020). Low-carbon transition is improbable without carbon pricing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(38), 23219–23220.


    • Amoah, A., Ferrini, S. & Schaafsma, M. (2019). Electricity outages in Ghana: Are contingent valuation estimates valid? Energy Policy, 135, 110996.
    • Blasch, J., Filippini, M. & Kumar, N. (2019). Boundedly rational consumers, energy and investment literacy, and the display of information on household appliances. Resource and Energy Economics, 56, 39–58.
    • Bouma, J.A. & Koetse, M.J. (2019). Mind the gap: Stated versus revealed donations and the differential role of behavioral factors. Land Economics, 95(2), 225–245.
    • de Boer, J. & Aiking, H. (2019). Strategies towards healthy and sustainable protein consumption: A transition framework at the levels of diets, dishes, and dish ingredients. Food Quality and Preference, 73, 171–181.
    • Haer, T., Botzen, W.J.W. & Aerts, J.C.J.H. (2019). Advancing disaster policies by integrating dynamic adaptive behaviour in risk assessments using an agent-based modelling approach. Environmental Research Letters, 14(4), 1–9. [044022].
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  • Data and Models

    Data and models are classified according to the themes.